The Unintended Consequences of Muhammad Ali

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The effort to modernize Egypt was led not by an Egyptian, but by an Ottoman-Albanian general, Muhammad Ali Pasha (1769-1849). Muhammad Ali took advantage of a power vacuum left from the French withdrawal and infighting between the Mamuuks to seize and consolidate power in Egypt. He became the self-proclaimed Khedive of Egypt and Sudan and […]

The Divide in the Military and Its Effect on Change

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The Divide of the Military and Its Effect on Change Jay Shah   With the overthrow of the Mohamed Morsi-led Muslim Brotherhood government, the veil is off of the new government led by the Egyptian military. As the 13th strongest military in the world, the military’s strength is far out of proportion with any external […]